联合文告:《连环扣》灌输马来人主权,政府不应保留为文学课本 (Joint Statement: Drop Interlok and Malay Supremacy From Form 5 Bahasa Malaysia Subject)

我们,以下47团体,反对政府继续把《连环扣》(Interlok)用作中五国文科文学课本,原因是《连环扣》全书充斥马来人主权(Ketuanan Melayu)的意识形态,试图巩固华人和印度人是外来移民的印象,刻板化三大族群之间的负面形象和社会关系。

《连环扣》的捍卫者声称小说的三个主角只是个人,不应把诠释为代表各自的族群。但是,教育部课程发展局准备的阅读指南已经阐明“《连环扣》的主题是马来西亚三大族群——马来人、华人和印度人的融合及面对各种挑战,以共同生活在一个自由和有尊严的国家”。因此《连环扣》不能把书内三个家庭的关系当作孤立个案看待。

我们促请社会大众关注,《连环扣》并非“中五马来文学”(Kesusasteraan Melayu)科目的课本,而是“中五马来文”(Bahasa Malaysia)科目的“文学部分”(KOMSAS – Komponen Sastera or literature component)。换言之,此书是所有中五国中生必读必考的科目,长久而言必定荼毒学子的思想,这是非常严重的。

We, the undersigned organizations, express our opposition to the decision by the Education Ministry to retain Interlok as the literature component (Komsas) textbook for the Bahasa Melayu subject.

We hold that the novel attempts to indoctrinate students with the Malay supremacy ideology. We also hold that the novel’s selection is linked to an agenda to reinforce the idea that Chinese and Indians are immigrants here. It negatively stereotypes the three main racial groups in the country and our troubled relationship with one another.

Some defenders of Interlok have claimed that the main characters in the book are mere individuals who cannot be extrapolated as representatives of their race. This is a mistaken line of argument as the Interlok lesson guide produced by the Education Ministry’s curriculum development department has clearly stated: “The theme of Interlok is the integration of three main races – Malay, Chinese and Indian – in Malaysia and the challenges they face in order to live together in an independent and sovereign country”.

Because it is the Ministry itself which has dictated that the characters in the novel are allegorical, therefore it will be wrong for us to now view them as atypical. Rather the Pak Musa, Cing Huat and Maniam personas are indeed symbolic of their races.

All stakeholders must be alerted to the fact that Interlok is NOT a textbook for Form 5 Malay literature which is an elective subject for Arts students. It is instead a textbook for the literature component of Form 5 Bahasa Melayu (Paper 2) – a compulsory subject, and consequently making Interlok a required reading. Students must pass this most important exam in order to pass SPM. This requirement elevates Interlok to a very serious matter impinging on the Fifth Former’s future, and consequently causing extreme uneasiness given the potential of impressionable young minds being put under duress.

《连环扣》通书充斥着令人极度不安的马来人主权意识,我们担忧学生将代代被灌输“你主—我客”的不平等地位观念,继续视华人、印度人和其他群体为二等公民。《连环扣》和灌输种族主义思想的国家干训局(Biro Tata Negara)有异曲同工的作用,为分裂族群和破坏国民团结埋下伏笔。

《连环扣》不仅丑化印度人,它也丑化书中华人角色Kim Lock 和Cing Huat(Cina Panjang)。两人被形容为贪婪、吸鸦片、好色、如果有女儿也会卖掉、压迫剥削马来男主角Seman; 它也妖魔化抗日军和共产党,把共产党游击队领袖描绘成强暴犯或意图强暴女性的道德沦丧者。

我们认为,为了多族群社会的长治久安,教育部指定的课本必须具有族群敏感度,并宣扬当代进步价值如民主、自由、平等、人权等。活在廿一世纪的大马社会,我们应该提倡“人民主权”(Ketuanan Rakyat)的观念,而非狭隘封闭的族群主权。

族魂林连玉先生早在五零年代已经表示:“每个民族对这一地区的开发,都有他们不可磨灭的贡献。我们必须把所有的民族,当作一家人看待,权利和义务一律平等”。

Interlok in its totality propagates the ideology of Ketuanan Melayu. In our considered opinion, this novel is not only unhealthy but an insidious poison.

In fact, Interlok is barely a step away from the Biro Tata Negara brainwashing that promotes racism and disunity. Interlok conveys the central message that Chinese, Indian and other minorities are second-class citizens in addition to perpetuating the divisive notion of a host community (the Malays) versus foreigners (“bangsa asing” Cina dan India). Not so subtly, Interlok intends to put the Chinese and Indians in their place as “pendatang”, and validating a social hierarchy according to ethnic origin.

Not only offensive to Indians, Interlok portrays the Chinese in the most derogatory manner too. Kim Lock is depicted as a miserly opium addict and callous adulterer while his son Cing Huat is painted as cunning, greedy, unscrupulous and someone who would happily sell his daughters.

A major thread of the plot has the Chinese character cheating and oppressing the Malay character. Other Chinese characters such as the communist guerrillas are nasty and immoral, and the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) comprising Chinese recruits is demonized by the author.

For the sake of a harmonious multi-ethnic society, all textbooks approved by Education Ministry must not allow slurs that hurt the sensitivities of the various communities to be uttered with impunity. State-endorsed literature should rightly promote contemporary progressive values such as democracy, freedom, equality and human rights. Living in Malaysia of the 21st century, we ought to advocate Ketuanan Rakyat instead of sponsoring a parochial and narrow ethnic hegemony.

As early as the 1950s, renowned Chinese educationist Lim Lian Geok had already framed the realisation that “each ethnic group has undeniably contributed to the development of this land. We must treat all as belonging to the same family and on equal footing in terms of rights and responsibilities”.

我们并不以为《连环扣》符合教育部的指南。《连环扣》全国行动小组指出,中学综合课程(KBSM)撰写课本指南提出六个标准,这本小说违反其中五个标准。教育部至今还没有对此作出解释,《连环扣》为何能够通过官僚审查而成为课本。

虽然政府已经修改19处敏感字眼,但是《连环扣》独立审查小组既然提出106项修改建议,可见这本小说有许多问题是不容置疑的。加上三名印裔代表宣布退出独立审查小组,我们认为目前的解决方案缺乏公信力。

我们促请政府以其它文学著作取代《连环扣》成为中五马来文科目的文学课本。

我们的立场是尊重小说作者的创作自由。《连环扣》小说无需被编辑删减,也应被允许在市场上自由流传,接受社会大众的检验和批评。但它不应成为中学的教学课本。

长久而言,我们促请政府制定更透明和严格的教学课本审查机制,委任德高望重的各族群学者、作家和社会贤达担任审查委员。教学课本的审查须有平衡的意见和各族群的平等参与。

Interlok does not comply with the guidelines set by the Education Ministry. The National Interlok Action Team (NIAT) has pointed out that its contents violate five out of six criteria outlined by the KBSM textbook guidelines. The Education Ministry has not yet given a satisfactory explanation as to why Interlok managed to pass the bureaucratic gatekeepers.

Education Minister Muhyiddin Yassin recently announced that the government has agreed to amend 19 words/passages found to be sensitive. Nonetheless, that the Interlok review panel has had to suggest a total of 106 changes only go to show how problematic the novel is. Furthermore, the withdrawal in protest of the three Indian panellists serves to discredit the Ministry’s proposed resolution to the issue.

Hence as a way out of the impasse, we urge the authorities to substitute Interlok with other material more suitable for use in the classroom.

Our stand is that we respect the author Abdullah Hussain’s freedom of expression and we do not object to his novel being sold in the bookshops. We do not ask either for the unabridged original version to be edited or censored although we welcome its critical appraisal by discerning adults. But the upshot is Interlok should not be a textbook in school.

For the long-term, we recommend the government to institute a more transparent and stringent mechanism for the vetting of school textbooks. It should consider appointing respected academics, authors and eminent public figures from the various ethnic groups to sit on the panel to ensure a balanced feedback and equitable participation.

《连环扣》小说争议部分摘要 Controversial passages in Interlok

贩卖孩童 Jual Anak

1.    有什么吃什么。如果有树根也吃。我们要求别人施舍。我们偷。我们没有女儿。如果有我们卖女儿(页119-120,Kim Lock说)
Kita makan apa yang dapat. Akar-akar kayu kalau ada. Kita minta sedekah. Kita curi. Kita tak punya anak perempuan. Kalau ada anak perempuan kita boleh jual. (Kim Lock, MS 119-120)

2.    “他在这里做得很好,老板说Cing Huat很勤劳,如果你要卖他要买”……他(Kim Lock)没想过要卖这个独生子。如果是女儿他说不定会卖。但是现在他有什么理由要卖?那时刻他一直在心里寻找理由(页151)
“Dia sudah bagus kerja sini, itu tauke bilang Cing Huat banyak rajin dan kalau lu mau jual dia mau beli”……dia (Kim Lock) belum pernah teringat mahu jual anaknya yang tunggal itu. Entahlah kalau anak itu perempuan. Tetapi sekarang apa sebab dia mahu jual? Dia mencari-cari sebab itu dalam hatinya pada waktu itu (MS 151)

3.    但是如果Kim Lock卖孩子,他可以赚到更多(页155)
Tetapi kalau Kim Lock mahu menjual anaknya itu dia boleh dapat untung lebih banyak lagi (MS 155)

4.    Kok Leng劝他卖掉Cing Huat。幸好他没答应,否则Cing Huat不再是他孩子。如果是女儿他肯定会卖掉(页160)
Kok Leng mendesaknya supaya menjual Cing Huat. Untung dia tidak banyak cakap, kalau tidak Cing Huat bukan anaknya lagi. Kalau anak perempuan tentu dia sudah jual (MS 160)

好色 / 吸鸦片 Gila Perempuan / Menghisap Candu

5.    今晚他一定要和妓女Gweek Cin睡,她苗条瘦长、平胸和有双小脚(页155)
Malam ini dia mesti tidur dengan perempuan loki Gweek Cin, yang kurus langsing dan berdada rata serta berkaki kecil itu (Kim Lock, MS 155)

6.    第200-203页,Kim Lock 带Mei Hwa去吸鸦片,每次见面吸鸦片后,他们都发生性关系。Kim Lock要带Mei Hwa回家住,儿子Cing Huat不同意,他要把妈妈从唐山带来。Kim Lock 拒绝他的建议,理由是“这会用很长的时间。我们不够钱”
Muka Surat 200-203, Kim Lock membawa Mei Hwa untuk menghisap candu dan mengadakan hubungan seks dengan dia setiap kali bertemu begitu.  Kim Lock mahu membawa Mei Hwa tingga bersama-sama mereka, Cing Huat tidak bersetuju dan meminta panggil ibunya dari Tung San ke sini, Kim Lock menolaknya dengan alasan “Itu akan memakan masa terlalu lama. Wang Kita juga tidak cukup”

7.    第457-458页,共产党干部Teck Hock企图强暴Poh Eng
MS 457-458, orang tua pasukan komunis Teck Hock cuba merogol Poh Eng tetapi diselamatkan.

贪婪 / 视钱如命 Gelojoh / Wang ialah Tuhan

8.    虽然民族谚语的确有言:“如果有钱,你将成为勇敢的汉人,如果没钱,连成为汉人都难”(页482)
Walaupun benar ada pepatah bangsanya mengatakan “Kalau ada wang, kamu menjadi seorang anak Han yang berani, kalau tidak wang susah nak jadi anak Han pun”  (MS 482)

9.    金钱没有敌人,敌人是阻止我们找吃的人(页141)
Soal duit tak ada musuh, musuh ialah orang-orang yang mau menghalang kita cari makan (MS 141)

10.    在像这样的陌生大城市,人们不能有同情心,如果同情(别人)我们不能发达致富。这里钱成为衡量标准。这世界钱是第二个神(页155-156)
Dalam kota besar dan asing serupa ini orang tidak boleh kasihan, kalau kasihan kita tidak boleh kaya. Di sini wang yang menjadi ukuran. Dalam dunia ini wang itu Tuhan nombor dua (MS 155-156)

11.    他开始感到,在这南方之地,除了令吉之外,祖先的精神毫无帮助。有了钱,对女人身体的欲望也越来越迫切。如果Kim Sui可以结婚及把女人收藏在城市,为什么他不能收藏女人?这有什么错?(页198)
Dia sudah mulai sedar bahawa di rantau selatan ini , bukan semangat nenek moyang yang dapat menolong, melainkan wang ringgit. Wangnya ada dan keinginan pada tubuh perempuan pun makin mendesak. Kalau Kim Sui boleh kahwin dan menyimpan perempuan di bandar, maka mengapa pula dia tidak boleh menyimpan perempuan. Apa salahnya? (MS 198)

歧视 / 欺骗 / 剥削马来人 Diskriminasi / Menipu / Mengeksploitasi Orang Melayu

12.    Cing Huat已开始能一点一点和番哪(Huan Na)说话,他已经知道他们是马来人,但是他比较喜欢叫他们番哪或者马来鬼,就像他的族人通常称呼他们一般(页179)
Cing Huat pun sudah boleh sedikit-sedikit bercakap dengan Huan na, dia sudah tahu orang-orang itu orang Melayu, tetapi dia lebih senang memanggil mereka Huan na atau Malai Kuai sahaja, seperti yang biasa dipanggil oleh bangsanya (MS 179)

13.    “Cina Panjang说那些土地全都是他的资产。我们养的牛也是他的资产。我爸爸已押了给他”(页88)
“Cina Panjang kata tanah-tanah itu semuanya haknya belaka. Lembu yang kami bela itu pun hartanya juga. Bapa saya telah gadai kepadanya” (MS 88)

14.    Seman说那片地已全部典当给Cina Panjang, 那华人命令Seman离开甘榜(页92)
Kata Seman tanah itu semua sudah digadai pada Cina Panjang tu, dan orang Cina tu pun dah suruh Seman ini keluar dari kampong tersebut (MS 92)

15.    ……我们被法律保障的土地典当给外族。我们不能做什么…我听到这个故事感到心寒。我们的资产会逐渐被典当。我们不能帮上什么忙吗?“只有一条路。如果我们意识到和觉悟。别再有人步向Pak Musa的后尘”(第95-96页)
…… tanah-tanah kita yang dilindungi oleh undang-undang tu tergadai kepada bangsa asing. Kita tak upaya nak buat apa-apa……kecut perut sayaa mendengar cerita ni. Lama-lam habis harta benda kita tergadai. Tak bolehkah kita menolongnya? “Cuma satu jalan saja. Itu pun kalau orang-orang kita mau sedar, mau insaf. Jangan ada orang yang ikut jejak pak musa tu” (MS 95-96)

联署单位 Endorsed organizations:
1.    吉隆坡暨雪兰莪中华大会堂  The KL & Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall
2.    林连玉基金 LLG Cultural Development Centre
3.    森美兰中华大会堂  Negeri Sembilan Chinese Assembly Hall
4.    柔佛中华总会 The Federation of Chinese Associations, Johore State
5.    槟州华人大会堂 Penang Chinese Town Hall
6.    五大宗教理事会 Malaysian Consultative Council of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhism and Taoism (MCCBCHST)
7.    政策倡议中心 Centre for Policy Initiatives
8.    马来西亚华校校友会联合会总会 Persekutuan Persatuan-Persatuan Alumni Sekolah China M’sia
9.    马来西亚南洋大学校友会 Nanyang University Alumni Association of M’sia
10.    马来西亚中国经济贸易总商会 Malaysian-China Chamber of Commerce
11.    吉隆坡坤成校友会 Persatuan Murid-murid Tua Sekolah Kuen Cheng K L
12.    吉隆坡暨雪兰莪河婆同乡会 Persatuan Ho Po KL & S’gor
13.    马六甲中华大会堂青年团 Youth Section of Malacca Chinese Assembly Hall
14.    维护媒体独立撰稿人联盟 Writers’ Alliance For Media Independence, WAMI
15.    新纪元学院校友会 New Era College Alumni Association
16.    雪隆理华同学会 Persatuan Siswazah Lihua KL & Selangor
17.    霹雳大专青年社 Perak Young Graduate Association
18.    社区传播中心 Pusat Komas
19.    雪隆社区协会 Persatuan Masyarakat Selangor & WP, PERMAS
20.    我是大马之子 Saya Anak Bangsa Malaysia, SABM
21.    《连环扣》全国行动小组 National Interlok Action Team, NIAT
22.    雪隆社区关怀协会 Persatuan Komuniti Prihatin KL & Selangor
23.    沙戥新村学校校友会青年团 Bahagian Pemuda Persatuan Murid-murid Tua Sekolah Serdang Bharu
24.    雪隆社区自强协会 Persatuan Kesedaran Komuniti Selangor, Empower
25.    马来西亚青年与学生民主运动 Malaysia Youth & Students Democratic Movement, DEMA
26.    Educational, Welfare and Research Foundation Malaysia
27.    Malaysian Tamil Forum
28.    Malaysian Hindu Youth Council
29.    Majlis Kelab Bell Belia Tamil Malaysia
30.    Tamil Foundation
31.    Malaysian Dravidian Association
32.    Group of Concerned Citizens
33.    Malaysian Association of Indian University Graduates
34.    Coalition of Malaysian Indian NGOs
35.    Malaysian Indian Historical Association
36.    Klang Consumer Association
37.    Malaysian Indian Development & Unity Association
38.    Indian Malaysian Active Generation (IMAGE)
39.    Persahabatan Semparuthi
40.    Child Development Initiative
41.    Council of Temples
42.    Hartal MSM
43.    Malaysian Indians Progressive Association
44.    Malaysian Indian Student Association
45.    Community Action Network
46.    雪隆福建会馆青年团 Selangor & KL Hokkien Association Youth Section
47.    中马钟灵校友会 Persatuan Alumni Chung Ling Wilayah Tengah

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